The Direct Method or Berlitz Method was created by...you guessed it, Maximilian Berlitz and Francoise Gouin. The Direct Method was a late 19th century response to the Grammar Translation approach which was prevalent at the time. This was the first time in which no mother tongue was used in the classroom and provided total immersion. The first goal of the Direct Method is speaking and then later students work on reading and writing. To convey meaning, teachers directly communicate through mime and gesture. Grammar is not taught directly, instead it is taught inductively, where students are presented with grammar patterns discover grammar rules themselves. The focus of this method is listening and speaking, and students practice real-world conversations and scenarios. The Berlitz empire extends from Istanbul to classes in Denver, with different target languages, of course.